Review of acoustical and optical techniques to measure absolute salinity of seawater.
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Le Menn, Marc
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The salinity of seawater is of fundamental importance in climate studies, and the measurement of the variable requires high accuracy and precision in order to be able to resolve its typically small variations in the oceans with depth and over long-time scales. This is currently only possible through the measurement of conductivity, which has led to the definition of a Practical Salinity scale. However, seawater is also composed of a large number of non-conducting substances that constitute salinity anomalies. Differences of the ratios of the constituents of sea salt from the Reference Composition may also change salinity anomalies. The establishment of formulae for calculating the thermodynamic properties of seawater has led to the definition of the concept of Absolute Salinity (SA), which includes such anomalies and is similar in approach to the notion of density. Although the routine in situ measurement of SA is still a huge challenge, numerous developments based on acou.....
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)14.a
CitationLe Menn, M. and Naïr, R. (2022) Review of acoustical and optical techniques to measure absolute salinity of seawater. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9:1031824, 19pp. DOI https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.1031824
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