A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change.
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The evolution of ocean temperature measurement systems is presented with a focus on the development and accuracy of two critical devices in use today (expendable bathythermographs and conductivity-temperature-depth instruments used on Argo floats). A detailed discussion of the accuracy of these devices and a projection of the future of ocean temperature measurements are provided. The accuracy of ocean temperature measurements is discussed in detail in the context of ocean heat content, Earth's energy imbalance, and thermosteric sea level rise. Up-to-date estimates are provided for these three important quantities. The total energy imbalance at the top of atmosphere is best assessed by taking an inventory of changes in energy storage. The main storage is in the ocean, the latest values of which are presented. Furthermore, despite differences in measurement methods and analysis techniques, multiple studies show that there has been a multidecadal increase in the heat content of both the u.....
JournalReviews of Geophysics
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CitationAbraham, J. P., et al. ( 2013) A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change, Reviews in Geophysics, 51, pp.450– 483. DOI:10.1002/rog.20022.
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