Calibration of acoustic instruments.
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Demer, David A.
Hufnagle, Lawrence T,
Jech, J. Michael
Macaulay, Gavin J.
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Acoustic sampling has long been a standard survey tool for estimating the abundance and distribution of fish, zooplankton, and their seabed habitat (Kimura, 1929; Sund, 1935; Holliday, 1972a; Nielson et al., 1980). Typically, acoustic surveys are conducted using multifrequency echosounders that transmit sound pulses down beneath the ship and receive echoes from animals and the seabed in the path of the sound waves (Simmonds and MacLennan, 2005). Generally, for surveys of animals, the backscatter signal is normalized to the range-dependent observational volume yielding the volume backscattering coefficient, which provides indications of the target type and behaviour. Objects scatter sound if their product of mass density and sound speed is different from that of the surrounding medium. A fish with a swimbladder has a large acoustic-impedance contrast (Foote, 1980), and thus has a large reflecting area, backscattering cross-section. Plankton, e.g. krill and salps, generally have.....
PublisherInternational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
Series;NrICES Cooperative Research Report;;326
Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)14,4
Essential Ocean Variables (EOV)Fish abundance and distribution
Best Practice TypeManual
CitationDemer, D.A.; Berger, L.; Bernasconi, M.; Bethke, E.; Boswell, K.; Chu, D.; Domokos, R. et al. (2015) Calibration of acoustic instruments. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 326, 133pp. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25607/OBP-185
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