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dc.contributor.authorMontes, Enrique
dc.contributor.authorLefcheck, Jonathan S.
dc.contributor.authorGuerra-Castro, Edlin
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Eduardo
dc.contributor.authorKavanaugh, Maria T.
dc.contributor.authorde Azevedo Mazzuco, Ana Carolina
dc.contributor.authorBigatti, Gregorio
dc.contributor.authorCordeiro, Cesar A.M.M.
dc.contributor.authorSimoes, Nuno
dc.contributor.authorMacaya, Erasmo C.
dc.contributor.authorMoity, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorLondoño-Cruz, Edgardo
dc.contributor.authorHelmuth, Brian
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Francis
dc.contributor.authorSoto, Eulogio H.
dc.contributor.authorMiloslavich, Patricia
dc.contributor.authorMuller-Karger, Frank E.
dc.identifier.citationMontes, E., Lefcheck, J.S., Guerra-Castro, E., Klein, E., Kavanaugh, M.T., et al (2021) Optimizing large-scale biodiversity sampling effort: toward an unbalanced survey design. Oceanography, 34(2), pp.80–91. DOI: oceanog.2021.216.en_US
dc.description.abstractAcquiring marine biodiversity data is difficult, costly, and timeconsuming, making it challenging to understand the distribution and abundance of life in the ocean. Historically, approaches to biodiversity sampling over large geographic scales have advocated for equivalent effort across multiple sites to minimize comparative bias. When effort cannot be equalized, techniques such as rarefaction have been applied to minimize biases by reverting diversity estimates to equivalent numbers of samples or individuals. This often results in oversampling and wasted resources or inaccurately characterized communities due to undersampling. How, then, can we better determine an optimal survey design for characterizing species richness and community composition across a range of conditions and capacities without compromising taxonomic resolution and statistical power? Researchers in the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network Pole to Pole of the Americas (MBON Pole to Pole) are surveying rocky shore macroinvertebrates and algal communities spanning ~107° of latitude and 10 biogeographic ecoregions to address this question. Here, we apply existing techniques in the form of fixed-coverage subsampling and a complementary multivariate analysis to determine the optimal effort necessary for characterizing species richness and community composition across the network sampling sites. We show that oversampling for species richness varied between ~20% and 400% at over half of studied areas, while some locations were undersampled by up to 50%. Multivariate error analysis also revealed that most of the localities were oversampled by several-fold for benthic community composition. From this analysis, we advocate for an unbalanced sampling approach to support field programs in the collection of high-quality data, where preliminary information is used to set the minimum required effort to generate robust values of diversity and composition on a site-to-site basis. As part of this recommendation, we provide statistical tools in the open-source R statistical software to aid researchers in implementing optimization strategies and expanding the geographic footprint or sampling frequency of regional biodiversity survey programs.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.subject.otherSurvey designen_US
dc.subject.otherBiodiversity monitoringen_US
dc.titleOptimizing large-scale biodiversity sampling effort: toward an unbalanced survey design.en_US
dc.typeJournal Contributionen_US
dc.subject.parameterDisciplineBiota abundance, biomass and diversityen_US
dc.subject.dmProcessesData acquisitionen_US
dc.description.adoptionValidated (tested by third parties)en_US
dc.description.methodologyTypeReports with methodological relevanceen_US Montes

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International