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dc.contributor.authorRuddick, Kevin G.
dc.contributor.authorVoss, Kenneth
dc.contributor.authorBanks, Andrew C.
dc.contributor.authorBoss, Emmanuel
dc.contributor.authorCastagna, Alexandre
dc.contributor.authorFrouin, Robert
dc.contributor.authorHieronymi, Martin
dc.contributor.authorJamet, Cedric
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, B. Carol
dc.contributor.authorKuusk, Joel
dc.contributor.authorLee, Zhongping
dc.contributor.authorOndrusek, Michael
dc.contributor.authorVabson, Viktor
dc.contributor.authorVendt, Riho
dc.identifier.citationRuddick, K.G.; Voss, K.; Banks, A.C.; Boss, E.; Castagna, A.; Frouin, R.; Hieronymi, M.; Jamet, C.; Johnson, B.C.; Kuusk, J.; Lee, Z.; Ondrusek, M.; Vabson, V.; Vendt, R. (2019) A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water. Remote Sensing, 11:1742, 27pp. DOI:10.3390/rs11151742en_US
dc.description.abstractThis paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for the measurement of downwelling irradiance in the context of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. The measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the latter, there are four generic families of method, using: (1) an above-water upward-pointing irradiance sensor; (2) an above-water downward-pointing radiance sensor and a reflective plaque; (3) a Sun-pointing radiance sensor (sunphotometer); or (4) an underwater upward-pointing irradiance sensor deployed at di erent depths. Each method—except for the fourth, which is considered obsolete for the measurement of above-water downwelling irradiance—is described generically in the FRM context with reference to the measurement equation, documented implementations, and the intra-method diversity of deployment platform and practice. Ideal measurement conditions are stated, practical recommendations are provided on best practice, and guidelines for estimating the measurement uncertainty are provided for each protocol-related component of the measurement uncertainty budget. The state of the art for the measurement of downwelling irradiance is summarized, future perspectives are outlined, and key debates such as the use of reflectance plaques with calibrated or uncalibrated radiometers are presented. This review is based on the practice and studies of the aquatic optics community and the validation of water reflectance, but is also relevant to land radiation monitoring and the validation of satellite-derived land surface reflectance.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.subject.otherIrradiance sensoren_US
dc.subject.otherRadiance sensoren_US
dc.subject.otherWater reflectanceen_US
dc.subject.otherFiducial Reference Measurements (FRM)en_US
dc.subject.otherDownwelling irradianceen_US
dc.subject.otherSatellite validationen_US
dc.titleA Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water.en_US
dc.typeJournal Contributionen_US
dc.subject.parameterDisciplineParameter Discipline::Physical oceanography::Other physical oceanographic measurementsen_US
dc.bibliographicCitation.titleRemote Sensingen_US
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue15, Article 1742en_US
dc.description.eovOcean colouren_US
dc.description.bptypeManual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc)en_US
dc.description.bptypeStandard Operating Procedureen_US G. Ruddick

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International