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dc.contributor.authorRyan, Peter G.
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Charles J.
dc.contributor.authorFraneke, Jan A. van
dc.contributor.authorMoloney, Coleen L.
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-07T20:15:23Z
dc.date.available2020-02-07T20:15:23Z
dc.date.issued2009
dc.identifier.citationRyan, P.G.; Moore, C.J.; van Franeker, J.A. and Moloney, C.L. (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 364, pp.1999–2012. DOI::10.1098/rstb.2008.0207en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11329/1207
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.25607/OBP-724
dc.description.abstractPlastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subject.otherMicroplasticsen_US
dc.subject.otherPlastic debrisen_US
dc.subject.otherMitigationen_US
dc.subject.otherMonitoringen_US
dc.subject.otherSeabirdsen_US
dc.subject.otherVirgin pelletsen_US
dc.titleMonitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.en_US
dc.typeJournal Contributionen_US
dc.description.refereedRefereeden_US
dc.format.pagerangepp.1999–2012en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1098/rstb.2008.0207
dc.subject.parameterDisciplineParameter Discipline::Environment::Anthropogenic contaminationen_US
dc.bibliographicCitation.titlePhilosphical Transactions of the Royal Society Ben_US
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume364en_US
dc.description.sdg14en_US
dc.description.bptypeManual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc)en_US
dc.description.bptypeStandard Operating Procedureen_US
obps.contact.contactnamePeter Ryan
obps.contact.contactemailpeter.ryan@uct.ac.za
obps.resourceurl.publisherhttps://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.2008.0207en_US


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